Types of Epilepsy

What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is typically defined as two or more unprovoked seizures. Children with epilepsy will usually require a treatment, such as daily medication, to help reduce the risk of seizures. Dr Millichap believes that precision (most accurate) diagnosis and a personalized treatment plan provides the basis for better outcomes. 

Types of Epilepsy

Following a comprehensive telehealth consultation, the most likely type or types of epilepsy will be discussed. There are many potential causes of epilepsy and some will begin with seizures at certain ages while others are variable. Some seizures will follow an event or specific injury in life such as stroke, head injury or brain infection. Following your consultation, the most accurate diagnosis will be discussed and a personalized therapeutic plan developed.

Genetic Epilepsy

With the increase in genetic testing in the epilepsy clinic over the past decade, many new genes have been discovered and associated with specific types of seizures and epilepsy syndromes. While rare, the number of children known to be suffering from these genetic epilepsies is increasing as more doctors order the test and with pharmaceutical company funded free genetic testing programs such as "Behind the Seizure." Strong and growing advocacy communities and parent foundations focused on many of these specific genetic epilepsy have formed and offer education and support for families while driving research into new treatments. 

These are examples of genetic epilepsies that Dr Millichap has particular experience and clinical expertise. He is a volunteer with many of the parent advocacy foundations and involved in academic clinical research and pharmaceutical clinical trials for these types of epilepsy. Click the links for more information:



SCN2A EEG Observational Study

Observational Study through Ciitizen for SCN2A-related disorders



Jack Pribaz Foundation

RIKEE Database

EPIK Clinical Trial

Observational Study through Ciitizen for KCNQ2 encephalopathy


SCN8A Alliance

Shay Emma Hammer Research Foundation

The Cute Syndrome Foundation

Wishes For Elliott

Kayak Study

Observational Study through Ciitizen for SCN8A-related disorders


Coalition to Cure CHD2

Observational Study through Ciitizen for CHD2-related neurodevelopmental disorder


Cure SZT2

Angelman Syndrome

Angelman Syndrome Foundation

An Open-Label, Multicenter Study To Investigate The Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of RO7248824 In Participants With Angelman Syndrome

A Study of the Safety and Tolerability of GTX-102 in Children With Angelman Syndrome

Epilepsy Syndromes

The International league Against Epilepsy (ILAE) is a professional organization with a committee consisting of the world's epilepsy experts that periodically reviews the current state of epilepsy practice and understanding of the field. Many epilepsy syndromes were identified over the years due to a consistent group of symptoms such as similar age of onset of seizures, seizure types, development, and progression of the epilepsy of years. This classification of the epilepsy syndromes was recently revised in 2022.  Dr Millichap will closely evaluate all of your child's symptoms and determine if there could be an appropriate epilepsy syndrome diagnosis.  

Not all children will have one of these epilepsy syndromes or some may evolve from one syndrome to another over time.  With early precision diagnosis and personalized treatment there is hope to prevent progression of the condition.

Epilepsy Evolution

The following table summarizing the current recognized epilepsy syndromes is taken from the 2022 publication from the ILAE [Wirrell, EC, Nabbout, R, Scheffer, IE, Alsaadi, T, Bogacz, A, French, JA, et al. Methodology for classification and definition of epilepsy syndromes with list of syndromes: Report of the ILAE Task Force on Nosology and Definitions. Epilepsia. 2022; 63: 1333– 1348.]

Syndrome group Syndrome name Abbreviation
Neonatal–infant CDKL5-developmental and epileptic encephalopathy CDKL5-DEE
Dravet syndrome DS
Early infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathy EIDEE
Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures EIMFS
Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus GEFS+
Gelastic seizures with hypothalamic hamartoma GS-HH
Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome GLUT1DS
Infantile epileptic spasm syndrome IESS
KCNQ2-developmental and epileptic encephalopathy KCNQ2-DEE
Myoclonic epilepsy in infancy MEI
Protocadherin 19 clustering epilepsy PCDH19 clustering epilepsy
Pyridoxine-dependent (ALDH7A1) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy PD-DEE
Pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate deficiency (PNPO) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy P5PD-DEE
Self-limited familial neonatal–infantile epilepsy SeLFNIE
Self-limited infantile epilepsy SeLIE
Self-limited neonatal epilepsy SeLNE
Sturge–Weber syndrome SWS
Child Childhood occipital visual epilepsy COVE
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with spike-and-wave activation in sleep DEE-SWAS
Epileptic encephalopathy with spike-and-wave activation in sleep EE-SWAS
Epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia EEM
Epilepsy with myoclonic absences EMA
Epilepsy with myoclonic–atonic seizures EMAtS
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome FIRES
Hemiconvulsion–hemiplegia epilepsy syndrome HHE
Lennox–Gastaut syndrome LGS
Photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy POLE
Self-limited epilepsy with autonomic seizures SeLEAS
Self-limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes SeLECTS
Idiopathic generalized epilepsies Childhood absence epilepsy CAE
Epilepsy with generalized tonic–clonic seizures alone GTCA
Juvenile absence epilepsy JAE
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy JME
Variable age Epilepsy with auditory features EAF
Epilepsy with reading-induced seizures EwRIS
Familial focal epilepsy with variable foci FFEVF
Familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy FMTLE
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis MTLE-HS
Progressive myoclonus epilepsies PME
Rasmussen syndrome RS
Sleep-related hypermotor (hyperkinetic) epilepsy SHE