Types of Epilepsy

What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is typically defined as two or more unprovoked seizures. Children with epilepsy will usually require a treatment, such as daily medication, to help reduce the risk of seizures. Dr Millichap believes that precision (most accurate) diagnosis and a personalized treatment plan provides the basis for better outcomes. 

Types of Epilepsy

Following a comprehensive telehealth consultation, the most likely type or types of epilepsy will be discussed. There are many potential causes of epilepsy and some will begin with seizures at certain ages while others are variable. Some seizures will follow an event or specific injury in life such as stroke, head injury or brain infection. Following your consultation, the most accurate diagnosis will be discussed and a personalized therapeutic plan developed.

Genetic Epilepsy

With the increase in genetic testing in the epilepsy clinic over the past decade, many new genes have been discovered and associated with specific types of seizures and epilepsy syndromes. While rare, the number of children known to be suffering from these genetic epilepsies is increasing as more doctors order the test and with pharmaceutical company funded free genetic testing programs such as "Behind the Seizure." Strong and growing advocacy communities and parent foundations focused on many of these specific genetic epilepsy have formed and offer education and support for families while driving research into new treatments. 

These are examples of genetic epilepsies that Dr Millichap has particular experience and clinical expertise. He is a volunteer with many of the parent advocacy foundations and involved in academic clinical research and pharmaceutical clinical trials for these types of epilepsy. Click the links for more information:



SCN2A EEG Observational Study

Observational Study through Ciitizen for SCN2A-related disorders



Jack Pribaz Foundation

RIKEE Database

EPIK Clinical Trial

Observational Study through Ciitizen for KCNQ2 encephalopathy


SCN8A Alliance

Shay Emma Hammer Research Foundation

The Cute Syndrome Foundation

Wishes For Elliott

Kayak Study

Observational Study through Ciitizen for SCN8A-related disorders


Coalition to Cure CHD2

Observational Study through Ciitizen for CHD2-related neurodevelopmental disorder


Cure SZT2

Angelman Syndrome

Angelman Syndrome Foundation

An Open-Label, Multicenter Study To Investigate The Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of RO7248824 In Participants With Angelman Syndrome

A Study of the Safety and Tolerability of GTX-102 in Children With Angelman Syndrome

Epilepsy Syndromes

The International league Against Epilepsy (ILAE) is a professional organization with a committee consisting of the world's epilepsy experts that periodically reviews the current state of epilepsy practice and understanding of the field. Many epilepsy syndromes were identified over the years due to a consistent group of symptoms such as similar age of onset of seizures, seizure types, development, and progression of the epilepsy of years. This classification of the epilepsy syndromes was recently revised in 2022.  Dr Millichap will closely evaluate all of your child's symptoms and determine if there could be an appropriate epilepsy syndrome diagnosis.  

Not all children will have one of these epilepsy syndromes or some may evolve from one syndrome to another over time.  With early precision diagnosis and personalized treatment there is hope to prevent progression of the condition.

Epilepsy Evolution

The following table summarizing the current recognized epilepsy syndromes is taken from the 2022 publication from the ILAE [Wirrell, EC, Nabbout, R, Scheffer, IE, Alsaadi, T, Bogacz, A, French, JA, et al. Methodology for classification and definition of epilepsy syndromes with list of syndromes: Report of the ILAE Task Force on Nosology and Definitions. Epilepsia. 2022; 63: 1333– 1348.]

Syndrome groupSyndrome nameAbbreviation
Neonatal–infantCDKL5-developmental and epileptic encephalopathyCDKL5-DEE
Dravet syndromeDS
Early infantile developmental and epileptic encephalopathyEIDEE
Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizuresEIMFS
Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plusGEFS+
Gelastic seizures with hypothalamic hamartomaGS-HH
Glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndromeGLUT1DS
Infantile epileptic spasm syndromeIESS
KCNQ2-developmental and epileptic encephalopathyKCNQ2-DEE
Myoclonic epilepsy in infancyMEI
Protocadherin 19 clustering epilepsyPCDH19 clustering epilepsy
Pyridoxine-dependent (ALDH7A1) developmental and epileptic encephalopathyPD-DEE
Pyridox(am)ine 5′-phosphate deficiency (PNPO) developmental and epileptic encephalopathyP5PD-DEE
Self-limited familial neonatal–infantile epilepsySeLFNIE
Self-limited infantile epilepsySeLIE
Self-limited neonatal epilepsySeLNE
Sturge–Weber syndromeSWS
ChildChildhood occipital visual epilepsyCOVE
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with spike-and-wave activation in sleepDEE-SWAS
Epileptic encephalopathy with spike-and-wave activation in sleepEE-SWAS
Epilepsy with eyelid myocloniaEEM
Epilepsy with myoclonic absencesEMA
Epilepsy with myoclonic–atonic seizuresEMAtS
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndromeFIRES
Hemiconvulsion–hemiplegia epilepsy syndromeHHE
Lennox–Gastaut syndromeLGS
Photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsyPOLE
Self-limited epilepsy with autonomic seizuresSeLEAS
Self-limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikesSeLECTS
Idiopathic generalized epilepsiesChildhood absence epilepsyCAE
Epilepsy with generalized tonic–clonic seizures aloneGTCA
Juvenile absence epilepsyJAE
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsyJME
Variable ageEpilepsy with auditory featuresEAF
Epilepsy with reading-induced seizuresEwRIS
Familial focal epilepsy with variable fociFFEVF
Familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsyFMTLE
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosisMTLE-HS
Progressive myoclonus epilepsiesPME
Rasmussen syndromeRS
Sleep-related hypermotor (hyperkinetic) epilepsySHE